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Ciao! Italy 
Presenter: Cindy   
I. Definition of the Italian
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is located on a boot-like peninsula in Southern Europe. Modern Italy became a united kingdom in 1861. The people in Italy are gregarious and charming. They love their food, their families, their music and their heritage. They exude confidence, charisma and hospitality.


II. Notions of time and space
A. Time: Italians are usually relaxed around issues relating to time. Being late with a good reason will not have any negative consequences. However, deliberate lateness is considered sloppy and taking people's time for granted is simply rude. When doing business in Italy, they emphasize punctuality.

B. Personal proximity: Remland and Jones (1995) reported that Italy (14.18 in) showed generally a closer distance than England or France (14.73 in).
        Non-verbal communication is extremely important in Italy. On the job, it is necessary to make eye contact and have a firm handshake. People who do not make eye contact are considered to be hiding something. In addition, Italians have little or no concept of personal space. Being in close proximity with someone is considered a sign of affection or camaraderie.


III. Factors that affect Italian behaviors
A. Culture: Italy is one of the world’s greatest centers of architecture, art, and books. Italians are proud of their artistic heritage. Museums, churches, courtyards and statues all over the country proudly display to a watching world the treasures of some of the greatest artists: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, to name just a few. Opera is also an Italian creation.


B. Food: Food is a thing of beauty in Italy. Italian food is an extension of the rich, fertile fields and seashore that are such a part of the people. Seafood, veal, chicken, fresh fruits and vegetables, and pasta is prepared with spices, sauces, and tender loving care. Mealtime is not rushed; fast food is a foreign concept. Italians, as with all things, enjoy their food, and enjoy the social interaction that is such a part of sharing a good meal.
        They are lively, sociable and have a passion for everything they do. They express emotions more freely than most and are not afraid to give hugs, kisses, and other displays of affection. Italians love to laugh and talk loudly, usually emphasizing everything with hand gestures. They are quick to welcome strangers into their towns and homes, and are always ready to share a meal or a story, a good joke or a song.

C. Religion: The large majority of Italians are Roman Catholics, this has affected their art and architecture. There are a vast number of religious monuments and paintings as well as local traditions based on Christian celebrations and the lives of the saints. Italians love a reason to celebrate. Easter and Christmas are joyously planned for and observed by feasts, sweets, decorations, and plays.



IV. Conclusion
        Historically rich, Italy is a cornerstone of today's western culture. Agriculturally rich, the Italian countryside is a prolific producer of fruit, vegetables, and livestock. Culturally rich, Italy has produced the world's best in art, architecture, music and literature. Italy is a colorful, rich, and romantic nation.


Reference:
黃芳田,陳靜文譯(民87)。義大利。台北市:遠流出版。
謝明蓉(民89)。MOOK自由自在雜誌書No. 5義大利。台北市:墨刻出版。





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